Water pollution in Vietnam | Wikipedia audio article


This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article:

00:01:03 1 Access
00:03:32 2 Water resources
00:06:05 3 Service quality
00:06:15 3.1 Drinking water quality
00:07:26 3.2 Pollution and wastewater treatment
00:09:45 4 Responsibility for water supply and sanitation
00:09:58 4.1 Responsibility for policy setting
00:10:50 4.2 National policies and targets
00:12:53 4.3 Policy implementation and monitoring
00:16:34 4.4 Responsibility for service provision
00:16:59 4.4.1 Urban areas
00:19:04 4.4.2 Rural areas
00:22:06 5 Efficiency
00:22:59 6 Financial aspects
00:23:10 6.1 Investment and financing
00:24:21 6.2 Tariff levels and adjustment
00:26:45 6.3 Cost recovery and affordability
00:27:37 7 External cooperation
00:28:10 7.1 Germany
00:29:39 7.2 Japan
00:30:11 7.3 World Bank
00:30:58 7.4 Asian Development Bank

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Speaking Rate: 0.9281855607759018
Voice name: en-GB-Wavenet-C

“I cannot teach anybody anything, I can only make them think.”
– Socrates

Water supply and sanitation in Vietnam is characterized by challenges and achievements. Among the achievements is a substantial increase in access to water supply and sanitation between 1990 and 2010, nearly universal metering, and increased investment in wastewater treatment since 2007. Among the challenges are continued widespread water pollution, poor service quality, low access to improved sanitation in rural areas, poor sustainability of rural water systems, insufficient cost recovery for urban sanitation, and the declining availability of foreign grant and soft loan funding as the Vietnamese economy grows and donors shift to loan financing. The government also promotes increased cost recovery through tariff revenues and has created autonomous water utilities at the provincial level, but the policy has had mixed success as tariff levels remain low and some utilities have engaged in activities outside their mandate.

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